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Mikhail Ragulin

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  1. Mikhail Ragulin

    Tutorial - how to add a new weapon.

    First things first - when one is modding, or going to add mods, the best thing to do is make a clean copy of your Xenonauts download, and do your interfering there.. Messing around with files in the steam folder is never a good idea, as they can easily be overwritten - and any extra files will stay in there, as steam won't delete these upon verification, which can lead to further problems. Files needed for adding a new weapon There's a few of them. They're in the assets folder, unless otherwise stated. All xml files can be opened and edited with notepad. It's what I use, I don't see the need for anything else when it comes to editing text files, although your preference may vary. - weapons_gc.xml - weapons.xml - ammos.xml - items.xml - strings.xml Weapons_gc This is the file that the game uses for ground combat. For the purposes of this tutorial, we'll be adding a revolver - the Smith & Wesson Model 29, aka the .44 Magnum - with exactly the same stats as the normal pistol (I'll leave it up to you to come up with your own damage models). Open up weapons_gc and find the default pistol entry: <Weapon name="weapon.pistol" bulletType="normal" emptySound="Empty Click 1"> <props range="10" hands="1" recoil="0" weight="2" isHeavy="0" clipSize="15" reloadAPCost="15" reloadSound="Weapon Pistol Reload" reactionModifier="1.5" /> <SingleShot sound="Weapon Pistol Single" delay="0.6" suppressionValue="20" suppressionRadius="1"> <Set1 ap="28" accuracy="35" /> <Set2 ap="40" accuracy="65" /> </SingleShot> <GUIImage name="gui/weapons/pistol" /> <GroundImage name="grounditemimages/ballistic_pistol.png"/> <Ammos> <Ammo name="ammo.ballistic.pistol" type="kinetic" damage="30" mitigation="0"> <Projectile spectre="projectiles/bullet/bullet" speed="2000" showAfterDistance="60.0"/> <Impact spectre="particles/bulletplume/bulletplume"/> </Ammo> </Ammos></Weapon> Thar she blows. Copy and paste it to the bottom of the file (so it's easy to find), just before "</Weapons>" (which closes the file). We'll need to change it's name. First line: weapon.pistol, change it to weapon.44. Next, we need to give it a picture in ground combat. This is the "GUIImage name" - change it to gui/weapons/44. Finally, we can give it it's own ammo. Change the "Ammo name" to ammo.44, and we should look like this: <Weapon name="weapon.44" bulletType="normal" emptySound="Empty Click 1"> <props range="10" hands="1" recoil="0" weight="2" isHeavy="0" clipSize="15" reloadAPCost="15" reloadSound="Weapon Pistol Reload" reactionModifier="1.5" /> <SingleShot sound="Weapon Pistol Single" delay="0.6" suppressionValue="20" suppressionRadius="1"> <Set1 ap="28" accuracy="35" /> <Set2 ap="40" accuracy="65" /> </SingleShot> <GUIImage name="gui/weapons/44" /> <GroundImage name="grounditemimages/ballistic_pistol.png"/> <Ammos> <Ammo name="ammo.44" type="kinetic" damage="30" mitigation="0"> <Projectile spectre="projectiles/bullet/bullet" speed="2000" showAfterDistance="60.0"/> <Impact spectre="particles/bulletplume/bulletplume"/> </Ammo> </Ammos></Weapon> Save the file and close it. Weapons.xml Find the pistol entry: <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">weapon.pistol</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/ballistic/pistol</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/ballistic/pistol</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">ballistic</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Boolean">0</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">20</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">16</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">15</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">0.9</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">2</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">3</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">2</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">ammo.ballistic.pistol</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">20</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:Index="16"><Data ss:Type="String">Ballistics</Data></Cell> </Row> Copy and paste it to near the bottom of the file...just after the alien battle rifle, and before "</Table>". There's an explanation of what the values in this file mean near the beginning of it (although most are redundant...the only relevant numerical values are the hands boolean, clipsize, x & y sizes, and the big gun boolean - remember to change the clipsize in both files if you are doing so, but for this tutorial we are leaving it as 15). Change weapon.pistol to weapon.44, like in our weapons_gc. The next line is the images, change them to weapons/ballistic/44. Change the ammo to ammo.44: <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">weapon.44</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/ballistic/44</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/ballistic/44</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">ballistic</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Boolean">0</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">20</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">16</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">15</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">0.9</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">2</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">3</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">2</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">ammo.44</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s66"><Data ss:Type="Number">20</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:Index="16"><Data ss:Type="String">Ballistics</Data></Cell> </Row> Save and close. Ammos.xml The ammo.44 that we have created, it needs an entry in here. Copy and paste the ballistic pistol ammo to the bottom of the file (within the "</Ammos>"), and make it relevant for the new ammo, by changing it's name to ammo.44 and the images to 44: <Ammo name="ammo.44"> <stockTextureName>weapons/ballistic/44_ammo</stockTextureName> <dragTextureName>weapons/ballistic/44_ammo</dragTextureName> <slotsizex>1</slotsizex> <slotsizey>1</slotsizey> <weight>1</weight> </Ammo> Items.xml We need entries in here for the weapon and the ammo, so that they become part of the game. Find and copy the entries for the ballistic pistol and its ammo, and paste them to near the bottom of the file (within "</Table>"). Change weapon.pistol to weapon.44, and ammo.ballistic.pistol to ammo.44: <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s70"><Data ss:Type="String">weapon.44</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="Number">0</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:Index="4"><Data ss:Type="String">Unlimited</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/airplane/rocket</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">Item.Dispose.Destroyed</Data></Cell> </Row> <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s70"><Data ss:Type="String">ammo.44</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="Number">0</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:Index="4"><Data ss:Type="String">Unlimited</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/airplane/rocket</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">Item.Dispose.Destroyed</Data></Cell> </Row> Save and close. Strings.xml This is where the items are localised, so their proper names appear in-game. We need entries for the weapon and its ammo. Find and copy the pistol and pistol ammo entries, and paste them near the bottom again, within the boundaries of " </Table>". weapon.pistol becomes weapon.44, and the ammo becomes ammo.44 - like all the other entries we have done for them. Two lines below each entry is how they are named in-game. Change pistol to S&W Model 29, and pistol magazine to .44 Magnum Rounds. <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">weapon.44</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">S&W Model 29</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> </Row><Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">ammo.44</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">.44 Magnum Rounds.</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> </Row> There's also an entry underneath the pistol entry, entitled weapon.pistol.desc. This again can be copied and pasted for your new Model 29 - it contains the tooltip information for the equip screen. Save and close. This is the end of our text editing. Images We need new images for the weapon and its ammo. If we go back through what we've changed, we'll see we need to make these images: - gui/weapons/44 - weapons/ballistic/44 - weapons/ballistic/44_ammo - and a previously unmentioned one for the ammo, in gui/quickthrowimages The easiest way to do images is to look at the vanilla ones - e.g., size and format. For weapons and ammos, they're all .png. Sizes start at 103x103 for a 1x1 square, and go on 204, 308, 512, 615. Undersize doesn't matter, as the game re-sizes them (I think it's the same for oversize too...but one area is for nades...they musn't be wider than they are high, or they won't show in the quick nade window). For the first two locations, we'll need a 3x2 (308x204) image of the weapon. I'll leave that up to you. The third location need an ammo picture of 1x1 (103x103) - we defined the sizes earlier in weapon.xml and ammos.xml. If in doubt, copy the vanilla sizes for borders and the like. The last location is for the ammo slot in ground combat. This is the standard ammo image that you've put in weapons/ballistic - but cropped, so it's borderless. If it's uncropped, it appears tiny. Once the images are added, it's a good idea to start a new game, and check all is well in the soldier equip screen. The weapon should appear under the ballistics tab. If all is not well, re-trace our steps and check for errors. How to make it show up in the hands of the soldiers Phil Spectre's are needed. These dummy files point to an already available sprite for the weapon to use. There's a thread about unpacking the spectre files floating around here. Unpacking the spectres is the best way to understand them - look within the units\xenonaut\armour\weapon.xxx folders for the soldier_spectre. The spectres don't need to be unpacked into the game folder - find a nice new place somewhere on the hard drive, and unpack them there. Also, there is no need to re-pack them - the engine detects them anyway. So, for our Model 29 we're likely to want some kind of sprite where the soldier is wielding a pistol. In the unpacked folder, look in assets\units\xenonaut\ and you'll see the folders for the specific armours. Open up armour.basic, and then weapon.pistol. In here is a list of spectre files that correspond to the various animations for weapons. The only one we need is the one called soldier_spectre. Copy that, and go back to our modded game folder. Open up assets\units\xenonaut\armour.basic, and create a new folder - call it weapon.44. Simply paste the soldier_spectre file into this empty folder. That's all we need. If you take a look at the vanilla weapons, for example by opening weapon.pistol, one can see all the various animations that are used - the spectre file is a replacement for these, telling the engine where to look when it wants to show our soldiers using the new weapon. One needs to create a weapon folder in units\xenonaut for all the armour variations (with the exception of predator, unless it's using the big-gun boolean). For this tutorial, we need folders called weapon.44 (like we did above), and within them the soldier_spectre for the ballistic pistol, and relevant armour type (basic, buzzard, jackal, predator, sentinel, wolf). Research & Manufacturing So, we've made our new weapon. It appears at the start of the game in unlimited quantities. However, one may like some weapons to appear after a certain research level has been achieved, and may want it to be manufactured in limited numbers. For this part, we're looking at 3 files: - items - manufactures - researches - strings Items - Open it up, and search for "weapon.laserpistol", and this is what we'll see: <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s70"><Data ss:Type="String">weapon.laserpistol</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="Number">10000</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:Index="4"><Data ss:Type="String">Normal</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">weapons/airplane/rocket</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s65"><Data ss:Type="String">Item.Dispose.Destroyed</Data></Cell> </Row> Spot the difference with out entry. The third value here is "Normal", whereas ours is "Unlimited". We know that the laser pistol is manufacture-only, and so change our .44 entry from unlimited to normal. Now, it won't be showing in unlimited numbers. For the ammo, we'll set it to be unlimited after research. Change the line in the 44_ammo entry with "unlimited" to <Cell ss:Index="4" ss:StyleID="s71"><Data ss:Type="String">UnlimitedOnResearch</Data></Cell> Save and close. Manufactures - Search for "Mantech.Laserpistol": <Row> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">ManTech.Laserpistol</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">SoldierWeapons</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="Number">20</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="Number">20000</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">2xItems.Alienalloys</Data></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">manufacture/ManTech.Laserpistol</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:Index="8"><Data ss:Type="String">StockItem( "weapon.laserpistol" );</Data></Cell> </Row> Copy this and place it at the end of the file, like we did with entries in other files earlier. Change it to ManTech.44. Change the fifth entry to manufacture/ManTech.44, and the last entry to StockItem( "weapon.44" ). The numerical values (20 & 20000) are the man-days and cost respectively. The alloys is the materials needed for each item. We'll leave them be. In which case, our new gun takes 20 man-days to make, costs 20000, and consumes 2 alien alloys. Researches - to unlock our new weapon, we'll add it to an existing research. Search for "LaserWeaponry": <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0" ss:Height="76.5"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s77"><Data ss:Type="String">Researches.LaserWeaponry</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s72"><Data ss:Type="Number">80</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s73"><Data ss:Type="String">Weaponary</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s80"><Data ss:Type="String">Researches.AlienPlasmaTechnology</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s74"/> <Cell ss:StyleID="s74"><Data ss:Type="String">UnlockKnowledge( "Researches.LaserWeaponry" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Laserpistol" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Lasercarbine" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Laserrifle" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Precisionlaser" );UnlockItem("ammo.laser.lasercell");</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s76"><Data ss:Type="String">Researches.LaserWeaponry</Data></Cell> </Row> We need to make an entry here for our new weapon. Copy one of the unlocks, and change it to: UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.44" ); Paste it in-between the ";" and "<" (after the lasercell entry). For the ammo, copy the lasercell entry, changing it to ammo.44_ammo, and place it like above. Our laser weapon research should now look like this: <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0" ss:Height="76.5"> <Cell ss:StyleID="s77"><Data ss:Type="String">Researches.LaserWeaponry</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s72"><Data ss:Type="Number">80</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s73"><Data ss:Type="String">Weaponary</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s80"><Data ss:Type="String">Researches.AlienPlasmaTechnology</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s74"/> <Cell ss:StyleID="s74"><Data ss:Type="String">UnlockKnowledge( "Researches.LaserWeaponry" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Laserpistol" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Lasercarbine" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Laserrifle" );UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.Precisionlaser" );UnlockItem("ammo.laser.lasercell");UnlockManufacture( "ManTech.44" );UnlockItem("ammo.44_ammo");</Data></Cell> <Cell ss:StyleID="s76"><Data ss:Type="String">Researches.LaserWeaponry</Data></Cell> </Row> Save and close. Strings - Just like earlier, we need to tell the game what to call our new manufacture. Search for "mantech.Laserpistol": <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">ManTech.Laserpistol</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">Laser pistol</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> </Row> <Row ss:AutoFitHeight="0"> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">ManTech.LaserpistolDesc</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> <Cell><Data ss:Type="String">The laser pistol is a one-handed laser weapon ideal for close-quarter use or as a sidearm.</Data><NamedCell ss:Name="_FilterDatabase"/></Cell> </Row> There are two entries - the first being a label for the manufacture (appears in the list of manufactures in the workshop), and the second is the description that accompanies it. Copy and paste them to the end of the file. In the first entry, "ManTech.Laserpistol" becomes Mantech.44. Change "Laser Pistol" to Smith & Wesson Model 29. In the second entry, change "ManTech.LaserpistolDesc" to ManTech.44Desc. Give it an appropriate description in the text-field. Save and close. Job Done So, there we have it. That's covered the basics for adding a new weapon. The fine-tuning is waiting to be discovered by you. Good luck, pilgrim.
  2. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    NOTICE FROM MODERATOR Mikhail Ragulin, the owner of this mod and creator of this thread has not been seen since 2014. He is not around to ask for new things, or for fixes to the mod. Download & Installation Click here to download. (latest version added 27th August - main changes are new auto rifles, and normal inventory/backpack sizes. Saves from previous versions probably aren't compatible, so best to start a new game) Make a clean copy of Xenonauts 1.09. This hasn’t been built on the community patch. Never install into the steam folder – it causes problems for mods and the base game. Download the file from the link above. Extract the download. Move/copy the extracted folder ("assets") into the copy of Xenonauts. Done. Beginners installation guide: ^^^ Click the spoiler button What is Magnum-nauts? Magnum-nauts is a weapons replacement mod for Xenonauts. The concept is that the Magnum-nauts have to fight the alien threat by using only ballistic weapons - no more lasers, plasmas, or MAGs, for the ground troops, as we cannot yet harness that technology into portable infantry weapons, (we can only manage bulky lasers etc., which means they can only be vehicle-based). There is more weapon variety in M'nauts (~15 compared to 5 in vanilla), which gives a bit of a different experience. But why's it called Magnum-nauts? What's that all about? Well...it's because we get our combat revolvers from Smith & Wesson, makers of a variety of magnum calibre weapons, punk. The most famous of which, popularised by Dirty Harry, is the Model 29 .44 Magnum, which, you guessed it, is in this mod. Not once, but twice. The Magnum-nauts use weapons that are donated by the funding countries. However, in the paranoid times of the cold war, there is not only a deep mistrust between east and west, but also a scepticism surrounding the Xenonauts project. The result of this is countries are unwilling to part with their most modern weapons, and the Magnum-nauts have to make use of what they have been given. However, sometimes a country will give up its recent weapons, perhaps in a show of strength to other nations. In order to progress to more powerful weapons, the scientists perform combat performance analyses when new aliens are encountered (or, more specifically...captured!). These live alien specimens are presented before the backers, who then see the need to part with better weaponry. The analyses become available for research whenever new ranks of aliens appear (from corvettes onwards). This happens every 2 1/2 to 3 months, giving each weapon tier plenty of time to be experienced. there is only one weapon per class per tier, so hopefully there's no weapon redundancy/confusing choices. The total game time is therefore at least ten months (mine usually last just over a year). The weapons are divided into four classes: breaching, rifles, heavy, and sidearms. Breaching contains shotguns, SMGs, carbines, and lever-actions. Rifles has assault rifles, automatic rifles, semi automatic rifles, and bolt-action rifles. heavy has LMGs, GPMGs, anti-tank rifles, and explosives (flamethrowers, rockets, etc.). Sidearms contains revolvers and machine pistols. There are also a few stun and melee weapons to boot. - Breaching – shotguns, smgs, carbines, and lever-actions - Rifles – assault, automatic, semi automatic, and bolt-action - Heavy – lmgs, gpmgs, anti-tank, and explosives - Sidearms – revolvers and machine pistols Geoscape Changes The main geoscape feature is the reduction in resources from UFO’s. Ones that have been shot down yield virtually no resources – the big payoff comes from landed UFO’s. More UFO’s will land in M’nauts compared to vanilla, so don’t worry about that – however, one may find him or herself having to perform more night missions, as landed UFO’s are best engaged as soon as possible, before they can fly off. There is a slight increase in night sight range, so they’re not as impossibly hard as vanilla – but they’re still tricky. Here’s a comparison of resources from UFO’s: The implications of these changes? Well, the trick is not to shoot down UFO's - at least not immediately. Watch them for a while, and if they land, send in the troops. If it looks like they're not going to land, then blow them away. Crashed UFO's provide easier, training-style missions. Alien materials are therefore harder to come by - and more is need for various manufacturing projects: Other geoscape changes include: revised dropship capacities (10, 11, & 12), changes to the research tree (certain autopsies are needed before better weapons can be procured), manufacturing times and cost for armours (to compensate for free weapons), and reduced airstrike winnings. There is another big one: terror missions. They’re active from the start in M’nauts, so don’t be surprised if one is fighting a lot of them early on – this makes air coverage more important. Another effect is it's easier to get good relations with funding blocs due to successfully defeating terror missions - however, this can, of course, work the other way. The soldiers stats now pull from a higher spread (30-70, vanilla is 35-65), producing a larger variety of stats in available troops (this helps with role specialisation, as troops will generally be pretty good at something, and poor at other things). Also, don't leave bases unattended or without defenses - get them protected ASAP. Base attacks begin earlier in M'nauts. Ground Combat - Full re-work of the UFO contents - tougher enemies appear earlier, and the scripts have been mixed up (sometimes they rush, sometimes it's like hide and seek - be prepared, pilgrim) - Aliens have grenades, so be careful with troop placement - More variety in ground missions. This is due to a number of changes: power core explosions (meaning crashed UFO’s are not as challenging, and also not as rewarding...some of the time), aggressive aliens/AI on certain mission types (which forces the player onto the defensive in some situations), and a neat little trick involving smaller UFO’s (but I’ll leave that as a surprise) - One primary weapon per soldier, punk. Primaries don't fit in the backpack. All sidearms do though (along with the disposable explosive launchers - the Type 10's, Handflammpatrone, and Einstossflammenwerfer) - The new classes of weapons each have their own individual sprite - for example carbines use MAG carbine, and lmg's use scatter laser - this makes it easier to distinguish which soldier is using which, at a glance. It adds a bit more visual variety than them all using the ballistic sprites - Local forces tend to have some quite interesting weapons - handy for when one is low on ammo - Remember to equip the soldiers before the first battle, as they start with no kit assigned. Know your enemy In order to progress to better weapons, certain aliens need capturing. For the first combat analysis, a soldier rank alien needs to be captured (these appear in corvettes, landingships, and small bases). For the second, a warrior class (from cruisers, carriers, and medium bases). And for the third, an elite class (from battleships and large bases). Confused as to what they look like? Hold on there, soldier, we're coming to that. When these new classes arrive on the battlefield, it can be quite tricky. A good tactic is to raid a new UFO. For example, when corvettes start to appear, it can be best to shoot one down (instead of trying to assault a landed one, with all it's juicy bounty...and extra aliens) and effectively "kidnap" an alien, hit-and-run style. Gas/stun him, get him in the backpack, and retreat to the dropship. Let the research department perform the combat analysis, and get the new weapons before taking on more of the new ranks that are appearing in larger UFOs. So, live aliens are needed - which rules out Androns, as they can't be captured. Therefore, one has to stun the relevant rank of either a Caesan, Harridan, Sebillian, or Wraith (or even a Reaper Alpha or Praetor for the final analysis). Here's what various alien rank look like - the ones that need capturing alive for the combat analyses are (mostly) on the bottom rows: Here's a bit more info on when various ships/aliens appear (100 ticker points is ~ 1 month): UI Features -Improved barracks screen. Makes it easier to see all the troops at once -This movement is hidden, punk -Improved equip screen, with larger windows on the right and bottom left, and larger assignment button (picture shows old inventory sizes - they've now reverted to normal size) -Mission and kill count in the GC equip window. The kills update during the missions (picture shows old inventory sizes - they've now reverted to normal size) Weapons Stats A comparison between weapons. The final column provides a power comparison with vanilla. Our weapons aren’t as powerful, as I find mid-to-late vanilla weapons a bit overpowered. As a comparison, vanilla MAG weapons are all roughly 3.5x more powerful than the starting weapons; in M'nauts, the top tier is 2x as powerful as the starting tier. This way, the game offers a different challenge. The ammo counts and weights are the official ones of the guns in real life - the damage is obviously abstracted to fit the game progression. The progression was chosen by calibre, muzzle velocity, and projectile energy - the higher these are, the more damage is done. Right-clicking on these tables and selecting view image makes them easier to read (and zoom in). That table should be easy to interpret, but here’s a breakdown of weapon penalties (which can be tricky to fathom at first): Here's another table showing vanilla stats - accuracy, TU cost, damage etc. And another, showing the stats/weapons from the previous version of M'nauts, so one can see how things have changed: Weapon Analysis Flamethrowers [video=vimeo;99408431] An abandoned vanilla concept, I’ve resurrected them for M’nauts (with thanks to catmorbid for the idea – you should all check out his asymmetric weapons mod). Treat them like gpmgs’s or launchers – useable only in specific situations. They are excellent at removing cover – ideal for flushing out the little blighters when they turtle-up somewhere. Use with caution – make sure the user has no obstructions near themselves, or they could be toast. They can fire over immediate cover, but have a tendency to clip nearby objects, like all weapons do- however, with the flamers being explosive weapons, one doesn't need to be an expert to realise that this will likely kill the user. They are a devastating weapon, but need to be used correctly. Future/next update - Next update: the final weapon classes (auto rifles and semi auto pistols) - More info for the combat analyses researches in the Xenopedia - Vehicles – ballisticification of vehicles and their weapons. Probably some flame tanks too. - Compatibility with community project If anyone would like to help out (no experience necessary), send me a PM - there's always little bits that need doing. Game assets - The art assets, and even the photo’s, took a lot of work and time. I’d appreciate it if they weren’t re-used by other mods (unless I have previously said so). An idea of how much work goes into them: first thing is to source high-res pictures, which can take a while. Then they need to be cleanly cut out, edge-treated, re-sized, etc. This is a lot of work, considering the number of weapons (and their ammos). Further to this, turning them into the new-style artwork takes even longer. I would not be pleased to see them cropping up elsewhere. The Goldhawk forum is the only place where the mod can be hosted/advertised. Other Info - check out the main thread for M'nauts here - other threads that track some of the progress are here (UI changes) and here (UFO resource changes)
  3. Mikhail Ragulin

    Magnum-nauts

    Download & Installation This has moved to the completed mods sub-forum, over here. What is Magnum-nauts? Magnum-nauts is a weapons replacement mod for Xenonauts. It follows on from Magnum Force, which was only for v21, and is compatible with the full game. The concept is that the Magnum-nauts have to fight the alien threat by using only ballistic weapons - no more lasers, plasmas, or MAGs, for the ground troops, as we cannot yet harness that technology into portable infantry weapons, (we can only manage bulky lasers etc., which means they can only be vehicle-based). But why's it called Magnum-nauts? What's that all about? Well...it's because we get our combat revolvers from Smith & Wesson, makers of a variety of magnum calibre weapons, punk. The most famous of which, popularised by Dirty Harry, is the model 29 .44 cal magnum, which, you guessed it, is in this mod. Not once, but twice. Unlike in Magnum Force, there are no "prototypes" or "experimental" weapons, meaning all the weapons are pre-1980. Our scientists have found that the key to defeating the aliens could come from weapons from an earlier era; before the modern standardisation of calibres. Many of these weapons could be classed as outdated for man-on-man warfare, but our analysts theorise that the larger calibre weapons could prove to be very effective against the ET's. The weapon progression follows the same concept as vanilla - there are four researchable "tiers", providing our troops with better weaponry. This is mainly achieved through procuring larger calibre weapons for the troops. However, in Magnum-nauts, there is a greater variety of weapons - a total of ten different classes, adding 38 new weapons to the game (and at the same time, removing the vanilla weapons). The classes are as follows: - shotguns - SMG's - assault rifles - battle rifles - anti-tank rifles - machine guns - explosive launchers - revolvers - machine pistols - melee They can be found under five different tabs: - breaching (shotguns and SMG's) - formerly the ballistic tab - rifles (AR's, BR's, and AT) - formerly the laser tab - heavy (MG's and explosive) - formerly the plasma tab - sidearms (revolvers and MP's) - formerly the MAG tab - melee (which is located where the rocket ammo tab used to be) This picture shows the new tab system, and some of the weapons: The mod is balanced by respecting the vanilla GC system, and erring on the side of caution. Meaning that the idea is to have the weapons be roughly 10% less powerful across the board. However, there are some weapons that defy this, and are below this threshold (as I reckon the late-game guns, especially MAGS, are overpowered), so generally the game play is a little bit harder than vanilla. There is a link to the stats in the "stats" section near the end of this post. There are some changes to how the existing weapons classes operate. The semi-auto shotguns, and the full auto one, can now burst fire. AR's, to reflect their dominance in modern warfare, are capable of burst firing twice per turn. This makes them effective at all ranges...unlike in vanilla, where they are crap at all ranges. Heavy weapons (AT's, mg's, explosive) suffer a move penalty, and recoil is a factor for more weapons. This is all explained in-game via tool-tips in the soldier equip screen. And speaking of the equip screen...you may have noticed the reduced backpack and belt sizes in the picture. This affects how the player will equip the Magnum-nauts. Primary weapons (apart from SMG's) no longer fit in the bag, spelling the end for the "universal soldier" effect. Medikits now fill the bag, and have therefore given birth to the medic class. Want healing? Shout "MEDIC". I do, pilgrim. Anyhow, here's some more waffle about the new classes... Breaching SMG's are roughly the same power as shotguns. Capable of 3 bursts per turn, due to their high rate-of-fire, they can be devastating up-close...in the right hands. Weaker soldiers may not be able to handle the recoil, and could end up spraying into the wind. Here's a tastefully-arty Clint to show you our breaching selection: Rifles AR's are capable of burst fire, and twice per turn at that. Our BR's do not have this function - however, their larger cartridge size gives them more power. They do not suffer from recoil like AR's do, as only weapons that are capable of burst fire have this drawback. BR's are a cross between the vanilla AR's and snipers. The AT's, or anti-materiel rifles, are immensely powerful (the most powerful line of weapons that the 'nauts can field) yet very cumbersome, capable of firing only once per turn. Here's the lot: Heavy The MG's are capable of firing once per turn, and the number of bullets per burst is relative to their RoF. The explosive weapons replace the vanilla rocket system...the last two are devastating, as they are automatic grenade launchers. Devastating to both sides if in the wrong hands, as they have enormous recoil and low base accuracy. Take it away, ghostly Clint: Sidearms The pride of the Magnum-nauts arsenal. All of our sidearms are one-handed weapons, and can fit in the backpack (they are, along with the SMG's the only weapons that can fit). The revolvers all retain the vanilla firing systems, with the exception of the scoped 29, which also has an accurate ranged shot option. The MP's are nasty little buggers, spitting out two bursts (of varying lengths) per turn, but have a range similar to the shotguns (about half that of the revolvers). Feeling lucky? More features - UI improvements in the equip screen. A larger drop-ship assignment button so that it really stands out. Also, assignment window (bottom left) is larger, which means no more scrolling or cut-off names. - Weapons are no longer manufactured. To balance this out, armours have had a 50% increase in build time (keeps the engineers busy), and doubled cost (to account for getting the new weapons for free). The process of researching the weapons has been extended by 50%, so the time taken from initialising research to fielding the weapons is roughly the same as vanilla. Seems to play out quite well. Manufacturing weapons that are available on the market doesn't make sense, so this is how I've circumvented it. - Drop-ship capacity. Charlie increased to 10, Shrike 11, and Valkyrie stays at 12. This is to stop the feeling of soldier bloat that can creep in when getting a new drop-ship. Getting a new drop-ship in vanilla usually sets off my loss of interest. However, with just an increase of 1 soldier capacity, it makes role choice more important - that extra troop is valuable, as opposed to a bloated feeling. Also, early UFO's have got extra personnel in them, making ten troops seem just about right. Ten troops also allow more tactical load-outs, especially when coupled with the smaller backpacks. - Nades. Flashbangs need researching, they come with stun weapons now. Makes them Caesan and Seb light scouts much more fun. Stun gas is replaced by tear gas (which, strangely, knocks out some aliens) which comes later on. Other nades (alenium, plasma, etc.) are gone, which of course raises the difficulty. Nades are too much of a "get out of jail free card", especially the electroshock and stun ones. So, stunning is carried out via the new truncheon, tear gas (has a smaller cloud than vanilla stun gas), and cattle prod, which is surprisingly effective against robotic enemies. The truncheon and the prod are smaller than the vanilla baton, and can fit on the belt or in the bag. Range on nades is slightly less too (15), just less than a revolver (16). - Armours. Specifically, predator. The "big guns" that the predator can use are all of the mg's, explosives, and AT's. - Mission & kill counts in the ground combat equip window. The kill count updates during the mission too. - The odd graphic change, here and there. There's a new launcher screen (so one knows that one has loaded Magnum-nauts), white smoke in the smoke grenade...and these new, alarming, difficulty images... Nothing quite says "you shouldn't be playing on easy mode" like this picture. Hints/tips It's pretty hard early on due to the extra ET's in the UFO's. Breaching isn't an option until stun is researched, so blow the doors off instead (I usually use C4, but just shot one through with an AT rifle). Take advantage of the diverse weapons...in a ten man squad, i have a shotgun, smg, AT, 2xAR, 2xBR, mg, explosive, and a dedicated medic (sidearm of choice, one medpack in bag, one in hand). Don't waste carrying capacity with medikits for all. Treat the AT rifle like a mg or launcher...keep it hidden/stationary until there's a clear target, then it's a one-shot killer. Don't move before firing it, as the heavy weapon penalty kills it (along with the mg's and explosives). The 'nauts start off with no weapons equipped, so make sure you arm them before the first battle (this is because all vanilla guns are out of the game).
  4. Mikhail Ragulin

    Crashed UFO timer?

    Can't find it. An entry which defines how long a crash-site stays on the geoscape. There's one for landed UFO's, but that's not what I'm after. Does it exist, or have I imagined it?
  5. Mikhail Ragulin

    Dart Gun mod - Pulling my hair out

    I'm clueless as to how XCE operates, but I see there's an extra line in your items.xml: The bit in bold, it's in both entries. This doesn't appear in the vanilla files at all. What's it for?
  6. Sander Clausen and Dirk Hunt.
  7. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    A mighty 4J of muzzle energy. I'm not sure, but I think more damage would be done by throwing the gun instead of shooting it. Update news: The next update is mainly focused on armours. There's one or two weapon stat changes, and a few new weapons (replacing some current ones). Probably be done for next weekend. The big thing is powered armour. Currently, there's just the predator, which is a bit of a game breaker, as it's so good (a vanilla hangover, as I haven't yet modified the armours) - cheap TU cost for weapons and no heavy weapons move penalty are the main culprits. That's changing. There's a new powered armour, like an early version of predator. I'm using senitinel armour for this. Currently, sentinel (like predator) is a game breaker - 360 degree vision, and a jet pack. Here's a quick summary: Sentinel: - reduced stats (taking on the buzzard armour values, ~35 resistance), no jet pack - earlier unlock (after jackal and andron disassembly) - 100 strength - big guns only, as it's a powered armour - 50% suppression reduction (as it's enclosed/helmeted, therefore reducing awareness) - reduced sight range and cone of vision (down to 12 tiles and 30 degrees) - suffers heavy move penalty This makes it an early "tank suit". Powerful, but needs troops nearby or it's vulnerable. Predator: - no weapons TU reduction - no heavy move penalty - 100 strength - big guns only - reduced sight range and cone (15 tiles and 45 degrees) - 75% suppression reduction The big daddy version of the new sentinel. Unlocked at same time as it is in vanilla. The reduced vision means these powered armours are powerful, as oppose to overpowered. Buzzard is now the only flying armour, and gets unlocked where sentinel used too - it's an end game armour now, as flight is a huge advantage. Keeps it's current armour stats though, so there's an element of risk to using it. Wolf gets a slight stat increase (and costs) from 45 to 50. "Big guns" are now just GPMGs and AT rifles, both have 100 recoil - therefore pretty much unusable without the powered armour (hence the need for an early-mid game powered armour, the new sentinel). This represents that issue that these guns can't really be fired from the shoulder (or even hip) in RL, unlike all our other weapons. That's what the powered armours overcome - it allows troops to use these weapons without adopting the prone position (so it's a bit of a nod towards realism). The GPMGs and ATs are always my top killers, and this is a nice way to keep them as not only powerful, but kind of unabuseable (the powered armours are expensive and slow to make, but worth having none the less).
  8. That was quick, sir. Do you have the old stats still? I'm interested in playing around with them.
  9. No - they're utterly incorrect! The only aliens with armour are Androns, and not as much as the table says. Have a look in xenonauts\assets\aiprops.xml for their current armour and health values.
  10. Mikhail Ragulin

    Having Issues With Modding! Please Help!

    I haven't checked, but from your description the crash could be coming from weapons.xml. If you've fixed a typo in ammos.xml....does the ammo entry for the weapon in weapons.xml need updating? If it's not that, it'll be an image-related typo/misnaming.
  11. Mikhail Ragulin

    Modding inventory containers

    So, I altered the backpack and belt (in both sequipview and sequipview_gc) to make them both smaller, like so: But...when in the ground combat view, I'm able to swap the rifle and the pistol. I shouldn't be able to as the rifle is to big to go in the backpack. The image distorts and hangs past the edge of the backpack, like it's using the space that is normally there (i.e. a 5x5 pack rather than 3x3). Anyone know why this happens, and if it's preventable?
  12. Mikhail Ragulin

    [Suggestion] Small GUI changes

    Thar she blows, sailor.
  13. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    Yeah, the earlier androns ensures varied loadouts. Although I did actually pick up my first andron flamethrower kill recently (albeit against one that was virtually dead).
  14. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    Almost - they both got a slight buff. Stats is stats though, and can be misleading (I prefer judging them by how they play in-game). Full rundown: SMGs: reduction in recoil (60 -> 55) and increase in damage (~25%, if my maths is right). I'd overnerfed them in a previous version, and couldn't get enough kills with them. Idea is that they're meant to be as good as the shotguns, but with more range - with the downside of recoil. Like the weapon that the shotgun troops graduate to, if they live long enough to get the strength. Although even with these changes, I still don't get the same kills as I do with a shotgun, but they are a little bit better at suppression. PPSh-41 and Tommy were both switched to the drum version to bring them in line with the others. Carbines: increase in power and mitigation (~20%), and changes to TU cost (now only fired twice per turn, but aimed and normal shots are a bit cheaper...more pop and shoot). Was odd having bolt-actions that can fire the same amount per turn as semi autos (rifles). They use pretty much the same cartridges as the new automatics, and so have the same damage model. AR's: -5TU% for burst, now costs the same as aimed. Increases their mobility, helps to differentiate from the new autos. Automatics: new line. Higher recoil than AR's, but more damaging & better suppression. Burst costs 70%, so it's hard to use offensively (unlike the AR's). LMGs: reaction modifier dropped to 0.5 (from 1). Brings them in line with the GPMGs, also reduces their run-and-gun power. Recoil reduction as well (down 5 to 65, GPMG is 70) to represent the smaller cartridges. Damage up 25% (like the SMGs, they'd been overnerfed previously in that department). AT's: now under the heavy tab. And do more terrain damage (due to different damage type). Mauser 1918 switched to the 5 shot magazine model (from single shot). Heavy: introduction of M202 in final weapon tier. Both the Handflamm and Einstoss (the disposable/backpack launchers) are unlocked in the third tier now. New disposable Type 10 Grenade Dischargers appeared (firing timed grenades). Sidearms: Model 29s reaction down to 1 (from 1.75), so it's not a direct replacement for the 29. MP's damage went down slightly, but got an extra burst per turn (they were pretty crap before hand, but useable now).Two new MPs with higher capacities (the Stechkin and the Schnellfeuer) replace the Trejo and VP70. And also generic versions of ammo added (ie shotgun ammo, AR ammo) as the weapons now replace each other in the loadouts when researched (but won't work that way for ammo, hence the change - it simplifies things). They're all in pouches/molles/cans though, looks neat.
  15. Mikhail Ragulin

    Mod idea - reaction-fire melee attacks for sebellian/reaper

    The unit I made with the weapon range of 1 - I've never seen it attack from further than an adjacent square (ie 1 tile), and that's with an accuracy of 1000. I don't think aliens use "yellow range" (ie out of normal range), come to think of it. Their plasma splitter/shotgun is has a range of 5, and I've not seen them fire that at anything other than close range (in fact, they usually die trying to get into that range, but that's another story).
  16. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    Right then sausages, I've uploaded the new version, download link is in the first post. It's being hosted only by the forum download service this time (last time it was dropbox too). I'll slowly update the first post with all the relevant details/new stuff over the next day or so. In the meantime, here's the weapon stats for this version: They're pretty much the same as last time (a few minor alterations), just with the new weapons in there. Changes are in bold (if it's visible).
  17. Mikhail Ragulin

    Mod idea - reaction-fire melee attacks for sebellian/reaper

    It might need some ai interference. Even with a non-melee bullet type, reapers will rarely have enough TU's to reaction fire anyhow. Dropping the TU cost for their weapon would allow them to spam-reap. Perhaps copying something like a Caesan/passive ai might help.
  18. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    We'd be into selective/full auto fire territory with those puppies. Which is maybe something for the future.
  19. Mikhail Ragulin

    Mod idea - reaction-fire melee attacks for sebellian/reaper

    Yeah, it works. There's one in the current M'nauts. It's just a new "rank" of reaper with a 1-range weapon (and a different spectre). It doesn't get chance to reaction fire though, as it's primary goal is to blow itself up and anyone near it (like the poppers from apoc)...so it's not the kind of unit that gets crept up on (it's weapon is also very low TU, to make sure it doesn't just come for a hug, like reapers sometimes do). Perhaps the more interesting aspect is that the ai has no qualms about blowing itself up (I don't think it understands blast radius).
  20. Mikhail Ragulin

    Mod idea - reaction-fire melee attacks for sebellian/reaper

    Yeah, melee reaction attempts cause a crash I think. But it is possible to do (for reapers anyway, as Sebs have guns and won't be able to use melee attacks too), by changing the reaper attack to a different bullet type, and giving it a range of one. That'd be a good starting point.
  21. Mikhail Ragulin

    [v1.09] Magnum-nauts

    Probably not (but then again, maybe) - in earlier versions, there was a mix between semi auto and bolt. I wanted one or the other (all semi or all bolt), and there was far more variety in calibres in the bolts. I could only find 3 semis (mini 14, m1, and sks) of varying power, which was a shame, as that's one short, which is why I went for bolts. I'm pretty sure I found another variant recently, can't remember what though. I can picture how they'd be...3 shots per turn perhaps, slightly less accurate than the bolts... Nah, all armours are the same. It could actually be alien accuracy that makes it seem that way (they're accuracy was untouched, which meant it's a bit too good compared to the reduced M'nauts weapons). I've re-jigged the alien accuracy a bit for the next version anyway, to bring it more in line with the human weapons, so annoying/unfair stuff isn't quite as annoying/unfair seeming. The semi auto rifles are usually my least used weapon - and then when I do use them, it dawns on me that I should be using them more. They're nasty when given to troops with high accuracy. I don't tend to use them until I either get the shrike, at which point I add a corpsman to the crew, who gets a semi auto and a medpack (takes the strain off my solitary medic with his machine pistol), or if my designated riflemen have crap strength and can't handle the recoil of AR's. In other news, the next version is nearly ready. I'm starting packing it up at the moment, and it should be available by this time tomorrow. There's all kinds of goodies that have been mentioned in the last page or two (auto rifles, grenade launcher/dischargers, capture live aliens for the combat analyses, huge UFO contents re-work). Along with the UFO re-work is pacing changes - for example, there's more of a definitive timescale on each set of weapons. The performance analyses come about every 3 months or so (250 ticker points, plus research time - which makes the game last at the very least 9 months, usually a fair bit longer due to having to get enough resources for the top armours/planes), so there's plenty of chance to play with each set of weapons.
  22. I think it's secondbriefing. I've still got v21 lingering...and the file is exactly the same as it is in 1.09. I guess it'd need re-enabling somewhere else.
  23. Mikhail Ragulin

    [Suggestion] Alien Base Blackouts

    Are night missions not the default for alien bases anyway? Or do the troops carry flares on each one for some other purpose?
  24. Mikhail Ragulin

    [X:CE 0.26+] Reduced Inventory

    It was pointed out once that the empty spaces can be filled with (unusable) objects by right-clicking them in the equip screen, which was another issue. However, it might just be something simple that I missed (d'oh!). I found this when changing the ground inventory size. My files were from an older version, where the ground was only 5 high, which was causing high objects (like the shield) to crash the game when it overlapped on the edge of the floor (which was probably the old shield bug crash, I guess which was fixed by making the ground 6 high - which is why my file was outdated). So I changed my file to 6, and an extra row of tiles appeared, no crashes. The relevant/similar bit of code for the backpack is: InventoryContainer { name = "backpack", x = 610 * screenScaleX, y = 145 * screenScaleY, w = 10 + 5 * Floor( 30 * screenScaleX ), h = 10 + 5 * Floor( 30 * screenScaleX ) + 22 * screenScaleY, headimage = "uitextures/sequip/frametoptrans", bodyimage = "uitextures/sequip/framebottomtrans2", bordersize = 2, headersize = 26 * screenScaleY, location = 1, whereas I was just interfering with the actual tiles. I haven't tried this, but I suspect the 5's here (and in sequip gc) control the inventory size (as that's all there is for the ground inventory, no tiles defined for that - and changing to 3 might get rid of any issues). Could be worth a try.
  25. Mikhail Ragulin

    [X:CE 0.26+] Reduced Inventory

    I've actually gone back to vanilla sizes now. Partly because I've got a few more smaller items (and therefore a variety of stuff to put in the space)...and partly due to the general bugginess of the smaller sizes (stuff occupying space outside the tiles) - or have you found a way around the nuances?
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